Here I'm assuming the existence of something that we call aesthetic. Althoug it has to be more developed and worked is not so easy to pass without it. The basic assumption is that in the human experience there is a way in of being affected by the environment. Te relevance of this notion for theories on art (and more phenomena but by the moment art is the protagonist in this societies) is crucial for explainin them. It is common tho ear that from the avant-garde movements productions the aesthetic aspect of art is rejected and avoid. I think that hese doesn't work as a counterexamples. I want only to signal this here, althoug if I'm not able to clarify the question now.
EAJk eta PSE-EEk Eusko Jaurlaritzako lehendakaritzarako hautagaitzak
aurkeztu dituzte gaur Eusko Legebiltzarrean. Juan Jose Ibarretxe egungo
jarduneko lehendakaria eta Patxi Lopez PSE-EEko idazkari orokorra
babestu dituzte, hurrenez hurren. Joseba Egibar GBBko presidenteak
erregistratu du EAJren 30 legebiltzarkideren izenean Ibarretxe
babesteko hautagaitza. Egibarrek jakinarazi duenez, "herritarren
gehiengoak martxoko bozetan EAJ babestu zuelako" aurkeztuko da
Horrez gain, Egibarrek jakinarazi duenez, EAJ eta Aralarrekin negoziazioetan ari da alderdi horiek Ibarretxeren hautagaitza babes dezaten.
Juan Antonio Pastor PSE-EEko Eusko Legebiltzarreko bozeramaileak Lopez babesteko PSE-EEko 25 legebiltzarkideren sinadurak erregistratu ditu. Pastorren aburuz, Lopez lehendakari izendatzen duten unetik aurrera "etapa berri bat" hasiko da. Horrez gain, atzo Ibarretxek bere legealdiaren inguruan egindako adierazpenak "porrot politikoaren isla" izan zirela nabarmendu du Pastorrek.
Lehendakariaren inbestidura saioa maiatzaren 5ean -datorren asteartean- egingo da. Ibarretxek EAJko 30 legebiltzarkideren babesa jasoko du eta Lopezek PSE-EEko 25 legebiltzarkiderena. Hala ere, Lopez izendatuko dute lehendakari, PPk eta UPDk Lopez babestuko dutelako. Hamahiru legebiltzarkide eta legebiltzarkide bat dituzte, hurrenez hurren. Beraz, Eusko Legebiltzarreko 75 aulkitatik 39 lortuko ditu Lopezek eta 30 Ibarretxek.
Abelard's life is relatively well-known: in addition to events chronicled in the public record, his inner life is revealed in his autobiographical letter Historia calamitatum [“The Story of My Troubles”] and in his famous correspondence with Héloïse.
Abelard was born into the lesser nobility around 1079 in Le Pallet, a small town in Brittany near Nantes. He received early training in letters, and took to his studies with enthusiasm; his later writings show familiarity with Cicero, Horace, Juvenal, Ovid, Lucan, Seneca, and Vergil. Abelard e
The EU's health commissioner has urged Europeans not to panic over swine flu, as ministers prepare for emergency talks on ways to contain the virus.
"We have to exercise vigilance, we should not panic, we have to be prepared," Androulla Vassiliou said.
The ministers are to discuss a possible EU-wide travel advisory for Mexico.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has raised the alert to level five, its second highest, and advised governments to activate pandemic contingency plans.
In Mexico, the epicentre of the outbreak, President Felipe Calderon urged people to stay at home over the next five days.
Mexico: 168 suspected deaths - eight confirmed
US: one death, at least 91 confirmed cases
New Zealand: 13 confirmed cases
Canada: 19 confirmed cases
UK: 5 confirmed cases
Spain: 10 confirmed cases
Germany: 3 confirmed cases
Israel, Costa Rica: 2 confirmed cases each
The Netherland, Switzerland, Austria, Peru: 1 confirmed case each
There are many cases elsewhere - including the US, Canada, Latin America, Europe, Israel, and New Zealand.
BBC health correspondent Matt McGrath says the raising of the WHO alert on Wednesday suggests a global epidemic, or pandemic, is imminent.
But, he adds, many experts remain hopeful that even if this happens, the effects of the virus will be mild.
None of the dozens of cases of swine flu reported on the continent so far has been severe.
The only deaths from the virus have been recorded in Mexico and the US.
In the latest developments:
At the meeting of health ministers in Luxembourg, a French proposal for a continent-wide travel advisory for Mexico will be discussed.
SYMPTOMS - WHAT TO DO
Swine flu symptoms are similar to those produced by ordinary seasonal flu - fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, chills and fatigue
If you have flu symptoms and recently visited affected areas of Mexico, you should seek medical advice
If you suspect you are infected, you should stay at home and take advice by telephone initially, in order to minimise the risk of infection
It is unclear whether the EU executive has the power to impose a travel ban.
Several countries have restricted travel to Mexico and many tour operators have cancelled holidays.
Other members are resisting calls to implement travel bans or close borders, on the grounds - backed by the WHO - that there is little evidence of their efficacy.
The EU ministers will also try to agree on how to refer to the virus.
The European Commission has been calling it "novel flu", replacing the word "swine" to avoid prompting a fall in demand for pork and bacon.
On Wednesday, Egypt began a mass slaughter of its pigs - even though the WHO says the virus was now being transmitted from human to human.
ventually renounced his inheritance, including its attendant knighthood, to pursue philosophy. He did so by travelling to study with well-known philosophers, most notably Roscelin and William of Champeaux.
During the first years of the twelfth century, Abelard felt confident enough to set himself up as a lecturer, first at Melun and then at Corbeil, competing mainly with William of Champeaux (Paris) for students and reputation. The strain proved too much — Abelard's health failed, and he returned to Brittany for several years.
Abelard returned to Paris sometime between 1108 and 1113 with his health restored and his ambition intact. He attended William of Champeaux's lectures, and entered into debate with William over the problem of universals. According to Abelard's report, he bested his teacher in debate, and gained his reputation as a dialectician of note, teaching at several schools. Around 1113 Abelard decided to study theology; he sought out the most eminent teacher of theology of his day, Anselm of Laon (not to be confused with Anselm of Canterbury), and became his student. It was not a good choice: Anselm's traditional methods did not appeal to Abelard, and, after some back-and-forth, Abelard returned to Paris to continue on his own. It would be the last time he studied with anyone.
Upon returning to Paris, Abelard became scholar-in-residence at Notre Dame, a position he held until his romantic entanglement with Héloïse led to his castration, at which point he entered the Benedictine monastery of Saint Denis and Héloïse entered the convent of Argenteuil. After his recovery, Abelard resumed teaching at a nearby priory, primarily on theology and in particular on the Trinity. His method of philosophical analysis was seen as a direct challenge to more traditional approaches, and a synod, convened in Soissons to examine Abelard's writings, condemned them and required Abelard to make a public avowal of faith, an experience he found humiliating; shortly afterwards he was allowed to settle in a wild and uninhabited section of land, to devote himself to contemplation.
It was not to be. Abelard says that poverty forced him to resume teaching. He and the students who flocked to him in droves constructed an oratory named the Paraclete, where he continued to write, teach, and research. This idyll came to an end around 1126, when Abelard accepted an invitation to become abbot of the monastery of Saint Gildas de Rhuys in Brittany; shortly afterwards he handed over the Paraclete to Héloïse and the other nuns, whose convent had been expropriated. Abelard found the monks of Saint Gildas difficult and obstructive — even dangerous — and he claims that there were several attempts on his life while in residence. During this period he wrote the Historia calamitatum and corresponded with Héloïse.
By the mid-1130s Abelard was given permission to return to Paris (retaining his rank as abbot) and to teach in the schools on the Mont Ste.-Genevieve. It was during this time that his theological treatises were brought to the attention of Bernard of Clairvaux, who objected to some of Abelard's conclusions as well as to his approach to matters of faith. After some inconclusive attempts to resolve their differences, Abelard asked the archbishop of Sens to arrange a public dispute between himself and Bernard on 3 June 1140, to settle their disagreements. Bernard initially refused the invitation on the grounds that one should not debate matters of faith, but then accepted it and, unknown to Abelard, arranged to convene another commission of enquiry to review Abelard's works on suspicion of heresy. When Abelard discovered that there was no debate but instead a kangaroo court, he refused to take part, announcing his intention to appeal to the Pope directly. He walked out of the proceedings and began travelling to Rome. The Council condemned nineteen propositions it claimed to find in his works and adjourned. Bernard launched a successful campaign petitioning the Papal Court before Abelard was out of France; a letter from the Pope upholding the decision of the Council of Soissons reached Abelard while he was at Cluny; Abelard was ordered to silence. By all accounts Abelard complied immediately, even meeting peacefully with Bernard in reconciliation. Peter the Venerable, the abbot of Cluny, wrote to the Pope about these matters, and the Pope lifted Abelard's sentence. Abelard remained under the protection of Peter the Venerable first at Cluny, then at St. Marcel, as his health gradually deteriorated. Abelard died on 21 April 1142. His body was interred at the Paraclete, and today is (with Héloïse) in Père Lachaise cemetery in Paris.
Abelard's students were active as kings, philosophers, poets, politicians, theologians, and monks; they include three popes and several heads of state. Explicit references to Abelard's thinking in the later Middle Ages are few, likely because of the cloud cast by the verdict of the Council of Soissons, but it is clear that he had a seminal influence on twelfth-century philosophy and perhaps on later fourteenth-century speculation as well.
The dates of composition and even the number of Abelard's writings remain largely obscure and a matter of controversy among scholars. One reason for this is that Abelard constantly revised and rewrote, so that several distinct versions of a given work might be in circulation; another reason is that several of his writings might represent “teaching notes” constantly evolving in courses and seminars. Hence it is not clear that “date of composition” is a well-defined notion. Apart from Abelard's correspondence, which can be dated with relative precision, Abelard's extant work falls into three categories.
The first category consists of Abelard's works on dialectic — works concerned with logic, philosophy of language, metaphysics, and philosophy of mind. His two masterworks are:
Both of these works follow the pattern of the logica vetus, the “old logic” inherited from antiquity: Porphyry's introduction to Aristotle, the Isagoge; Aristotle's Categories and On Interpretation; Boethius's Introduction to the Categorical Syllogism, Categorical Syllogisms, Hypothetical Syllogisms, On Topical Difference, and On Division. Abelard's works cover the material presented in the old logic, though they do so in different ways. His Logica ‘ingredientibus’ is a close textual commentary on the old logic, though only some of it survives, namely the commentaries on the Isagoge, the Categories, On Interpretation, and On Topical Differences; his Dialectica is an independent treatise on dialectic that treats the same material thematically, though neither the beginning (covering the Isagoge and the start of the Categories) nor the ending (on division and definition) have been preserved. In addition, there are four lesser works on dialectic:
The first of these is a series of elementary commentaries on the old logic (though again not completely preserved); their simple level has led some scholars to think they must come from early in Abelard's career, others to deny that they are Abelard's work at all. Second, the Logica ‘nostrorum petitioni sociorum’ is a commentary on Porphyry's Isagoge; it has textual parallels with some of Abelard's other works and shows some knowledge of theology. The third work deals with concepts, or ‘understandings’, from both the point of view of logic (roughly as providing the meanings of terms) and from the point of view of the philosophy of mind (as vehicles for mental content). The last work may be no more than a report of some of Abelard's lectures, and is concerned with logical and metaphysical puzzles about wholes and parts.
The second category consists of Abelard's works on ethics:
The Ethics offers an analysis of moral worth and the degree of praise or blame that should attach to agents and their actions; it breaks off at the beginning of the second book. The Conversations is a pair of debates (among characters who appear to Abelard in a dream) over the nature of happiness and the supreme good: the Philosopher, who claims to follow only natural reason, first debates with the Jew, who follows the Old Law; the Philosopher then debates the Christian, who defends Christian ethics from a philosophical point of view. Abelard also wrote a slight work of practical advice for his son:
Moral advice and edifying sentiments are found in this series of distichs.
The third category consists of Abelard's works of philosophical theology. His three main works are devoted to a philosophical analysis of the Trinity, the several versions representing successive stages of his thought and his attempts at orthodoxy (each rewritten several times):
The first version of the Theology seems to have been the work condemned at the Council of Sens, the last the work condemned at the Council of Soissons. In addition to these three works, in which problems in philosophical theology are treated thematically, Abelard also wrote several commentaries:
The first three commentaries are brief, but Abelard's discussions of the first verses of Genesis and of Paul's letter are extensive and detailed (the latter also relevant to Abelard's ethical theory). Abelard also took up questions about faith and reason in a short work:
This brief inner dialogue, modelled on Augustine's Soliloquies, has “Peter” talking things over with “Abelard.” Theological questions of a more practical nature were raised by Héloïse in a series of questions she asked on her behalf and on behalf of the nuns of the Paraclete:
Practical issues are also addressed in Abelard's sermons, hymns, and lamentations (planctus). Finally, Abelard composed an extremely influential theological work that contains no theoretical speculation at all:
Abelard assembles a series of 158 questions, each of which is furnished with patristic citations that imply a positive answer (sic) to the question and other patristic citations implying a negative answer (non). Abelard does not attempt to harmonize these apparently inconsistent remarks, but in his preface he lays down rules for proper hermeneutic investigation: look for ambiguity, check the surrounding context, draw relevant distinctions, and the like.
Abelard's students and disciplines also record many of his views,
though this material has yet to be explored carefully. There are
references in Abelard's extant works to other works we do not have:
Grammatica, “Grammar”; Rhetorica,
“Rhetoric”; a commentary on Ezekiel written at the
beginning of his studies in theology; and others. It is possible some
of these works may yet be found
Abelard's metaphysics is the first great example of nominalism in the Western tradition. While his view that universals are mere words (nomina) justifies the label, nominalism — or, better, irrealism — is the hallmark of Abelard's entire metaphysics. He is an irrealist not only about universals, but also about propositions, events, times other than the present, natural kinds, relations, wholes, absolute space, hylomorphic composites, and the like. Instead, Abelard holds that the concrete individual, in all its richness and variety, is more than enough to populate the world. Abelard preferred reductive, atomist, and material explanations whenever possible; he devoted a great deal of effort to pouring cold water on the metaphysical excesses of his predecessors and contemporaries.
Abelard defends his thesis that universals are nothing but words by arguing that ontological realism about universals is incoherent. More exactly, he holds that there cannot be any real object in the world satisfying Boethius's criteria for the universal, namely something present as a whole in many at once so as to constitute their substance (i.e. to make the individual in which it is present what it is). Hence, Abelard concludes, universality is not an ontological feature of the world but a semantic feature of language.Suppose universals were things in the world, so that one and the same item is completely present in